Tanzania, officially the United Republic of Tanzania, is a country in eastern Africa within the African Great Lakes region. It borders Uganda to the north; Kenya to the northeast; Comoro Islands at the Indian Ocean to the east; Mozambique and Malawi to the south; Zambia to the southwest; and Rwanda, Burundi, and the Democratic Republic of the Congo to the west. Tanzania's total area is 947,303 square kilometers (365,756 sq mi). The United Nations estimated Tanzania's 2016 population at 55.57 million.
Agriculture in Tanzania is an important sector for domestic and export economy. Agricultural output remains predominately based on small holder production. Government marketing boards that set quasi-official (semi-official) prices for certain crops. Tanzania is highly dependent upon cash crop exports. The small amount of existing arable land in Tanzania. The agriculture sector contributes nearly one-third of GDP. The most important obstacles facing the agricultural sector are its dependence on rainfall, the limited use of improved seeds and the high cost of fertiliser and herbicides.
The climate is basically determined by the country's position just south of the equator and by the airstreams coming from the Indian Ocean and southern Asia. Except for rainfall there is little seasonal variation. The rainy season varies - in general rains may begin as early as October or November in the southern part of the country and end in March. In the north, however, the heavy rain, begin in March and end in May or June. There is also a good deal of local variation, and a few places, especially in the northern highlands, may sometimes benefit from a short rainy period in November or December. Two major elements, rainfall and temperature, produce what is essentially a tropical equatorial climate.
Agricultural products include coffee, sisal, tea, cotton, pyrethrum, cashew nuts, tobacco, cloves, corn, wheat, cassava, bananas, and vegetables. In terms of agricultural exports, coffee constitutes the most important cash crop. Cash crops, such as coffee, tea, cotton, cashews, sisal, cloves, and pyrethrum account for the vast majority of export earnings. Maize, paddy, wheat, and cassava are produced for domestic consumption. A potentially critical support mechanism for industrialisation, Tanzania’s cotton industry is one of its agricultural mainstays.