Citrus generally refers to a group of popular fruits which include sweet oranges, limes, grapefruits, lemons and mandarins (also known as tangerines). Citrus fruits are widely cultivated in tropical as well as subtropical African countries.
While fresh citrus for the market is produced preferably in subtropical climates (like South Africa) and Mediterranean climates (e.g. Tunisia, Egypt, Morocco, Libya), citrus used in juice production is predominant in tropical climates because of the possibility for higher sugar content.
African countries like South Africa make up to $600 million every year from fresh citrus fruits exported to the USA and Europe.
In most other parts of Africa, citrus fruits (especially oranges) are used to produce concentrates for making fruit juice. Due to the high content of vitamin C, they are also used in pharmaceutical industries to make dietary supplements. Fertilization treatment affects yield, quality and consumer characteristics.